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糧食安全靠它! 世界糧食日聯合國聚焦家庭農業

聯合國糧農組織(FAO)總幹事José Graziano da Silva在2014羅馬世界糧食日典禮上指出:「我們對抗飢餓的努力已經有所進展,但是仍有超過8億人營養不良。」呼籲各界關切並支持全球的家庭農業。

聯合國糧農組織(FAO)總幹事José Graziano da Silva在2014羅馬世界糧食日典禮上指出:「我們對抗飢餓的努力已經有所進展,但是仍有超過8億人營養不良。」呼籲各界關切並支持全球的家庭農業。

肯亞郊區的小農正在進行農事。(來源:Gates Foundation)

家庭農業產出佔全球8成

家庭農業:「餵養世界,關懷地球」2014世界糧食日的主題,強調家庭農業在消滅飢餓和貧窮、提供糧食安全和營養、改善生計、管理自然資源、保護環境和永續發展等方面的重要性。

聯合國大會將2014年指定為國際家庭農業年,顯示國際社會已認知到家庭農業對全球糧食安全的重要性。「零飢餓是我們的終極目標。而家庭農業是達成這個目標的關鍵。」Graziano da Silva說。

根據FAO 16日發表的報告,全球5億7千萬的農田,有10分之9是家庭農田,因此家庭農業是永續糧食安全和未來消滅飢餓的關鍵因素。Graziano da Silva在「2014糧農報告」中指出,家庭農業產出全球80%的糧食,家庭農業的普及和生產是8億人飢餓問題的解藥。

讓年輕人也投入 家庭農業面臨創新挑戰

此外,家庭農業管理全球75%的農業資源,是改善生態和資源永續性的關鍵。但家庭農業也最容易受資源耗竭和氣候變遷的影響。雖然證據顯示家庭農業的收成可觀,但也有許多小型家庭農業無法自給自足。

家庭農業面臨三重挑戰:收成必須達到全球糧食安全和營養;透過環境永續保護地球和並確保自身的生產能力;產量成長、生計多樣化以脫離貧窮和飢餓。

FAO的報告指出,家庭農民必須以創新因應這些挑戰。「家庭農民必須創新,這是他們唯一能夠掌握生產過程並確保獲得所需解決方案的辦法。家庭農業是健康糧食系統的關鍵要素,也是讓我們的生活更健康的要素。」Graziano da Silva說。

FAO報告呼籲公部門和農民、公民組織和私人企業合作,透過投資農業研究改善農業創新系統,增加取得種籽、肥料乃至接近市場和使用信用貸款的機會。

FAO指出,除了技術轉移外,政策也必須催化創新,具有包容性並符合當地情況,讓農民掌握創新,考量性別和跨世代問題,並且讓年輕人在未來參與農業。

Family Farmers Take Center Stage on World Food Day
ROME, Italy, October 16, 2014 (ENS)

“We have made progress against hunger, but over 800 million people remain undernourished,” said José Graziano da Silva today. As head of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, he was speaking at the 2014 World Food Day ceremony in Rome, urging recognition and support for the family farmers of the world.

The 2014 World Food Day theme – Family Farming: “Feeding the world, caring for the Earth” – is intended to focus world attention on the importance of family farming in eradicating hunger and poverty, providing food security and nutrition, improving livelihoods, managing natural resources, protecting the environment, and achieving sustainable development.

“Zero hunger. That is our true goal,” said Graziano da Silva. “And family farming is key in this effort.”

The UN General Assembly has designated 2014 International Year of Family Farming as a signal that the international community recognizes the contribution of family farmers to world food security.

Nine out of 10 of the world’s 570 million farms are managed by families, making the family farm a crucial agent of change in achieving sustainable food security and in eradicating hunger in the future, according to a new FAO report released today.

Family farms produce about 80 percent of the world’s food. Their prevalence and output mean they “are vital to the solution of the hunger problem” afflicting more than 800 million people, Graziano da Silva wrote in the introduction to “State of Food and Agriculture 2014.”

Family farms are the custodians of about 75 percent of all agricultural resources in the world, and so are key to improved ecological and resource sustainability.

They are also among the most vulnerable to the effects of resource depletion and climate change. While evidence shows impressive yields on land managed by family farmers, many smaller farms are unable to produce enough to provide for their families.

Family farming is faced with a triple challenge: yield growth to meet the world’s need for food security and better nutrition; environmental sustainability to protect the planet and to secure their own productive capacity; and productivity growth and livelihood diversification to lift themselves out of poverty and hunger.

According to the FAO report, these challenges mean that family farmers must innovate.

“In all cases, family farmers need to be protagonists of innovation as only this way can they take ownership of the process and ensure that the solutions offered respond to their needs,” Graziano da Silva said. “Family farming is a key component of the healthy food systems we need to lead healthier lives.”

The report calls for the public sector, working with farmers, civil society organizations and the private sector, to improve innovation systems for agriculture through investment in agricultural research, to increase access to seeds and fertilizers as well as access to markets and credit.

Policies meant to catalyze innovation must go beyond technology transfer, according to the FAO. They also must be inclusive and tailored to local contexts, so farmers have ownership of innovation, take gender and intergenerational issues into consideration, and involve youth in the future of agriculture.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

引用來源:環境資訊中心